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AND HOW 

And All About It. 




AND FACT SI 



FOR THE 



f rospecTivE SEltlen 



bsucd under 6u1T^oritij of 

Aon .Frank Oliver 

/AIN15TER OF THE INTERIOR 
. OTTAWA CANADA 




r is hoped that the accompanying map, as well as the 
information herewith given, will prove valuable to the 
prospective settler as well as to the person who wishes 
to secure a home at low cost and in a country that is 
now long past the experimental stage, and which offers 
as testimony the splendid yield of grain — wheat, oats, 
barley, flax — that have been the talk of two continents 
for the past two years. 

The invitation of the Government of the Dominion of Canada 
extended so generally to the people of Europe and the United States 
to make their homes in Western Canada has been most warmly 
accepted and as a result during the past year upwards of 150,000 
people have taken advantage of it. These followed an almost equally 
large number last year, and for the past six or seven years the nimiber 
has been increasing. They are all satisfied, they are doing well and 
becoming prosperous, and there is no longer any worry as to future 
prospects — they are assured, and are what the people themselves 
choose to make them. The climate, the soil, and other conditions 
necessary to assure prosperity are there- -all that is necessary to do 
is to apply such resources as you may be possessed of. 

Pamphlets have been issued by the Department of the Interior 
which give the fullest information, accurate in detail, and in every 
way reliable, but owing to the nimiber of questions that are being 
asked daily it has been deemed advisable to put in condensed form 
such questions as most naturally occur, giving the answers which 
experience dictates as appropriate and which will convey the infor- 
mation commonly asked for. 

Copies of literature, fully describing Western Canada, its resources, 
etc., will be mailed on application to any of the agents whose names 
appear elsewhere, or to 

W. D. SCOTT, 
Superintendent of Immigration, 
OTTAWA, CANADA. 




WESTERN CANADA 



1. Where are these lands? 

ANSWER. West of Lake Superior, north of Minnesota, North 
Dakota and Montana, and east of the Rocky Mountains, in the Prov- 
inces and Districts known as Northern Ontario, Manitoba, Sas- 
katchewan and Alberta. 

2. What kind of land is it? 

ANSWER. Except in Northern Ontario, the land is prairie and can 
be secured absolutely free from timber and stones, if desired, the soil 
being the very best alluvial black loam from one to two feet deep, 
with a clay subsoil. It is just rolling enough to give it good drainage, 
and in a great many places there is plenty of timber, and in other 
places it is underlaid with good coal. 

3. If the land is what you say, why is the Government giving it 
away? 

ANSWER. Canada is 250,000 square miles larger than the United 
States, and the population is only about one-twelfth of that of the 
great Republic, therefore there is an immense area of vacant land. 
No matter how fertile land is it is no use to any country unless it is 
made productive. The Canadian Government realizes that Canada 
will be one of the greatest countries in the world when these lands are 
brought under cultivation, as it has been proVen that they are more 
productive for stock and grain than any in America. The Govern- 
ment, knowing that agriculture is the foundation of a progressive 
country, and that large yields of farm produce insure good prosperity 
in all other branches of business, is doing everything in its power to 
assist the farmer. It also realizes that it is much better for each man 
to own his own farm, therefore it gives a free grant of 160 acres to 
every man who will reside upon and cultivate the same. 

4. Are the taxes high? 

ANSWER. No. Having no expensive system of municipal o 
county organization, taxes are necessarily low. Each quarter-section 
of land, consisting of 160 acres, owned or occupied, is taxed to the 
extent of $2. to $2.50 per annual. The only other taxes levied are for 
schools. In the locations where the settlers have formed school 
districts the total tax for all purposes on a quarter-section seldom 
exceeds $8 to $10 per anniim. 

5. Are there any schools outside the towns? 

ANSWER. The public school system is established all through the 
covintry. There are schools in all the organized school districts. 
These districts can not exceed five miles in length or breadth, and 
must contain at least four actual residents, and twelve children be- 
tween the ages of five and sixteen. In almost every locality, where 
these conditions exist, schools have sprtmg up. 

6. In those parts which are better for cattle and sheep than for 
grain, what does a man do if he has only 160 acres? 

ANSWBR. If a settler should desire to go into stock-raising and his 
quarter-section of 160 acres should not prove sufficient to furnish 



5 



WESTERN CANADA 



pasture for his stock, he can make application to the Land ComtBS*- 
sioner, for a lease for grazing lands for a terra of twenty-one years, at 
a very low cost. 

7. Does the Government tax him if hclets his cattle run on Gorern- 
ment Lands, and will he get into trouble if his cattle go on land leased 
by the big ranchers? If they fence their land is he obliged to fence 

his also? 

ANSWER. Necessarily the settler is not required to pay a tax for 
allowing his cattle to run on Government land, but to avoid incon- 
venience or trouble, which, for one cause or another may arise, it is 
always advisable to lease land from the Government for haying or 
grazing purposes, when needed. It seems reasonable that, if a settler's 
quarter-section is in the vicinity, or adjoining a rancher's land which 
he has leased and paid for, that he should object to anyone's cattle 
running over his property, and vice versa. If one fences his land, 
his adjoining neighbor has to stand a proportionate share of the cost 
of the fence adjoining his property, or build one-half of it himself, but 
anchers seldom fence land leased for ranching. 




Breaking the Prairie. 

8. Where can he get material for a house and sheds, and about 
what would it cost him? What does he do for fuel? Do people suffer 
from the cold? 

ANSWER. Though there are large tracts of forest in the Canadian 
Northwest, there are localities where the quantity of biiilding timber 
ar^d material is limited, but this has not proven any drawback to the 



4 



WESTERN CANADA 



settler, as the Government has made provision for such cases. Should 
a man settle on a quarter-section of land deprived of timber, he can, 
by making application to the Dominion Lands Agent in the locality 
obtain a permit to cut on the Government lands free of charge the 
following, viz.: 

(1) 3,000 lineal feet of building timber, measuring no more 

than 12 inches at the butt. 

(2) 400 roofing poles. 

(3) 2,000 fencing rails and 500 fence posts, 7 feet long, and not 

exceeding five (5) inches in diameter at the small end. 

(4) 30 cords of dry fuel wood or firewood. 

The settler having all these free of charge, he has only the expense 
of the cutting and hauling them to his homestead, which cannot cost 
him a great deal. There are areas of coal of such an extent as to be 
practically inexhaustible. The Legislature of the Province of Mani- 
toba has effected an arrangement by which this coal is to be supplied 
at a very low rate according to locality. The principal districts of 
Western Canada are within easy reach of firewood, while the settlers 
of Alberta and Saskatchewan are particularly favored, especially 
along the various streams and from some of which they get all the 
coal they require, very frequently at the cost of handling and hauling 
it home. No one in the country need suffer from the cold on account 
of the scarcity of fuel. 

9. In what way can I secure land in Western Canada? 
ANSWER. -It can be secured by homesteading or purchasing. If 

homesteaded you secure 160 acres free from the Government, the 
conditions before you receive your patent being that you shall live 
upon it for three years from the time of making entry, a residence of 
six months in each year being necessary, and doing a small amount of 
ctdtivation. If you purchase, it will be from some of the railway 
companies or private corporations, the price being from $4 to $10 per 
acre, according to location. 

10. Is it timber or prairie lands? 

ANSWER. This depends a great deal upon location. There is more 
or less timber along all streams. As you go north or northwest, it is 
more heavily timbered; taken as a whole, it is about 20 per cent, 
timber. 

11. Can I take up more than 160 acres? 

ANSWER. No; 160 acres is all that you can get under the home- 
stead plan. 

12. What is the entry fee? 
ANSWBR, $10.00. - 

13. Is there any further money consideration? 

ANSWSR. No 

14. Can a man take up a quarter-section for himself and another 
for a friend to come in afterward?? Can a man living there take up a 



i 



WESTERN CANADA 




A Wester .1 Cai 



quarter-section for others coming in, or must they arrange it them- 
selves? 

ANSWER. The privilege of making homestead entry by proxy 
was abolished on the 17th April, 1906. Entry must now be made 
in person. 

15. How far from railroad will I have to go to take up a homestead? 
ANSWER. This also varies with the location. 

16. Can a woman take up a homestead? 

ANSWER. If she is a widow with minor dependent children of her 
own she can; otherwise she can not. 

17. After making an entry on homestead, will I have to moTC on 
at once? 

ANSWER. No ; you have six months in which to perfect your entry. 

18. Where can a settler sell what he raises? Is there any compe- 
tition amongst buyers, or has he got to sell for anything he can get? 



6 



WESTERN CANADA 




I It is a well-known fact that mining communities fiimish the bc«t 
I possible markets for all classes of goods. The population of the min- 
! ing districts is to a great extent dependent upon the outside world 
j for every necessity of life. As a nile a mining poptdation is a gener- 
ous consumer and "good pay." Scores of buyers are scouring the 
country in quest of every kind of farm products, thus creating a lively 
competition, and guaranteeing the highest market prices for every- 
thing. There is an unlimited demand for the grains grown in Wett- 
em Canada by the nimierous and extensive flour and oatmeal mills 
and breweries. All the surplus grain grown finds its way to the com- 
mon markets of Europe. The meats are bought on the hoof, at th« 
home of the farmer or rancher. 

7 



WESTERN C A N A D 



19. How is it for stock-raising? 
ANSWER. The country has no equal. The climate in many Jrts 

IS such that cattle are never housed throughout the winter, aj so 
nutritious are the wild grasses that stock is placed upon the mfket 
without having been fed on an ounce of grain. / 

20. If a man has two or more sons who have homestcaJed. is/each 
of them required to live on his claim? 

ANSWER. No : they can all live with their father if he lives li the 
vicinity as long as they perform the duties of cultivation on the( 



land. 



own 



21 If a man takes his family there before he selects a homlteaci 
can he get temporary accommodation for them? T 

ANSWER. In a great many places the Government maintails an 
Immigration Hall, and gives free temporary accommodation^ for 
those desiring such and supplying their own provisions. | 

22. What sort of chance for employment is there when a maJ first 
goes there and isn't working on his land? ' 

ANSWER. As there are different kinds of industries through the 
country, outside of farming and ranching, such as sawmills, fiiur- 
mills. brickyards, railroad building in the summer, and lumbering in 
the winter, it is always an easy matter for a man to find employment 
at fair wages when not working on his land. The chances for a rtian 
to get employment are good, as a large percentage of the settlers go- 
ing in and those already settled there farm so much that they mkst 
have help, and pay good wages. During the past two seasdhs 
20.000 farm labourers have been brought in each year from the ealt- 
ern provinces to assist in caring for the large crops. People withoii 
capital, who are not able or do not know who to work, will always 
find great difficulty in getting on in any country; the capable and 
willing worker is sure to succeed in Western Canada. 

23. How much money must he have to start grain farming, and 
how httle can he do with if he goes ranching? 

ANSWER. That will depend a great deal on circum^,tances. It is 
difficult to specify as to the amount required to start farming- the 
energy, experience, judgment and the enterprise of the person con- 
cerned, increases capital. It is known, however, that numbers of 
prosperous farmers have made their start with merely money enough 
to pay for their homestead entry fee, working as hired men in seeding 
and harvesting time, while during the other months of the vear they 
would perform the statutory and necessary improvements on their 
land. But it can safely be said that, if a man arrives in the country 
with $500, he is in a fair position to make a good beginning on free 
grant land though not on a very large scale. The same conditions 
can be applied to ranching, by working on shares in herding cattle. 

24. If a man takes up a quarter-section to ranch on is he obliged 
to^break up land the sume as if he were going farming? 

ANSWKR. Nc; not if he is the owner of twenty head of cattle. 



8 



I 



WESTERN CANADA 



25. About what time does seeding begin? 

ANSWER. As a rule farmers begin their seeding from the first to 
the fifteenth of April, sometimes continuing until the first of May. 

26. How long does it take wheat to mature? 

ANSWER. The average time is about 90 to 110 days. This short 
time is accounted for by the great amount of sunlight. 

27. Is the climate as agreeable and pleasant as described in the 
pamphlets? 

ANSWER. There is no doubt of that, and if you will read in a care- 
ful manner the experiences of settlers and others you will see that the 
statements made by the Government and its representatives are 
fully corroborated. 

28. What is the duration of the winter? 

ANSWER. Snow begins to fall about the middle of November and 
in March there is generally very little. In the portion of the Provinces 
nearest the Rocky Mountains the snowfall is not quite as heavy as 
farther east and in Manitoba, but the Chinook winds in the west 
have a tempering influence, and the moisture afforded by the fall of 
snow in the east, which is so necessary to the successful raising of 
grain, is rendered by these Chinook winds. The absence of the usual 
snowfall would be regretted by the farmer: So you will see nature 
has provided for every mile of the country, and as a matter of choice 
there IS really very little, with the exception that the farthest west 
the climate is somewhat milder. 

29. Then as to summer climate? 

ANSWER. The summer days are warm and the nights cool. The 
fall and spring are most delightful, although it may be said that 
wmter breaks almost into summer, and the latter lasts until October. 

30. Is the country healthful? 

ANSWER. Very. There are no pulmonary or other endemic com- 
plamts. Invalids are frequently sent there for the sake of the dry 
and bracing air. 

31. Is there sufficient rainfall? 

ANSWER. Speaking generally, yes; a sufficient supply can be 
rehed upon. The most rain falls in May and June, just when it is 
most needed. 

32. Can a man raise a crop on the first breaking of his land? 

ANSWER. Yes, but it is not regarded as satisfactory to use the 
land for any other purpose the first year than for raising garden vege- 
tables, or perhaps a crop of flax, as it is necessarily rough on account 
of the heavy sod not having had time to rot and become workable. 

33. How is the country for hay in those districts where it is neccs 
sary to put up hay for use of stock in the winter? 

ANSWER. There is always to be found sufficient wild hay meadows 
on Tovemment or vacant land, which mav be rented at a very low 



9 



WESTERN CANADA 



rental if you have not enough on yoiir own farm. Should there be 
any trouble in getting this, the experience of the past few years has 
proven that timothy and other cultivated grasses can be successfully 
grown. A species of grass known as Brome grass is now cultivated. 
The yield is from two to four tons per acre and the nutritiousness it 
fully greater than that of timothy. 

34. How shall I know what to do or where to go when I reach that 

country? 

ANSWER. If you have made a sufficient study of the matter before 
you start, you will need very little further advice or assistance, but go 
immediately to the place decided upon, and you will succeed. If 
you have not, you had better put yourself in communication with the 
Canadian Government Agents, whose names appear elsewhere. At 
Winnipeg, you will find maps showing vacant lands, also lands for 
sale, lists of farmers who wish to employ male and female help; and 
comfortable quarters for temporary shelter until you may have de- 
cided in which district you had better make your home. This 
decided, you will be given the services of a competent guide, who will 
assist in locating you. 




A Western Home. 

35. What is the best way to get there? 

ANSWER. From United States points you will find it to your ad- 
rantage to write or call upon an authorized agent of the Government. 

36. Can I get employment with a farmer so as to become acquaint- 
ed with local conditions? 



10 



WESTERN CANADA 



AMswiR. Yes, this can be done throii^h the Commissioner of Im- 
migration at Winnipeg immediately on yotir arrival. This official is 
always in a position to offer engagements with well-established 
farmers. Men experienced in agriculture may expect to receir* 
about $20 per month, with board and lodging; engagements, if 
desired, to extend for twelve months ^ 

37. But if I haye'had no experience and simply desire to become 
acquainted with Canadian agriculture before starting life on my own 
account? 

ANSWER. Young men and others unacquainted with farm life 
who are willing to accept from $8 to $10 per month for their services, 
including board and lodging, will also be able to find positions through 
the Government officers at Winnipeg. Wages are altogether depend- 
ent upon experience and qualifications, and no one is expected to 
work for nothing. After working for a y ear in this way the practical 
knowledge necessary of the conditions tmder which agriculture is 
carried on in Canada will be found sufficient to iustify you in taking a 
free grant section and entering upon farm life on your own accoimt. 

38. Should I pay a fee to any booking agent for finding me a place 
in Canada, or will I have to pay a farmer for teaching me agriculture? 

ANSWER. No, neither one nor the other. The Department 
strongl y advises that no arrangement be made of this character. The 
ordinary farm pupil business is not to be recommended. 

39. What about cost of transportation? 

ANSWER. From St. Paul to Gretna, Emerson or Portal low rates 
exist, and on securing a low-rate certificate from a Government 
agent reduced rates on Canadian railways may be had for both pas- 
sengers and freight. At Coutts, and other boundary points in the 
West, the low rate certificates take effect. And also at the Soo, 
Windsor and other boundary points in the East, the same low rates 
are effective, when a Government certificate is presented. 

40. How much baggage will I be allowed on the Canadian Rail- 
ways? 

ANSWBK. 150 pounds for each full ticket. 

SPECIAL INQUIRIES. 

The above questions cover part of those generally asked by prob- 
able settlers. Others that frequently occur, are as follows : 

1. Can fruit be raised in Western Canada, and if so, state the dif- 
ferent varieties? 

ANSWER. Yes, the small fruits grow wild. Among the varieties 
cultivated are plums, cranberries, strawberries, gooseberries, rasp- 
berries, melons, etc. In the eastern provinces fruit-growing is carried 
on very extensively and successfully. 



11 



WESTERN G A N A D 



2. Do reeetables thrire there, and if so, what kind are raited? 
ANSWER. Yes ; potatoes, tximips, carrots, beets, parsnips, cabbage, 

peas, beans, celery, ptimpkins, tomatoes, squash, etc. 

3. What sort of people are settled there so far, and do they speak 

Enelish? 

ANSWER. The settlers already there comprise Canadians, English, 
Scotch, Irish, French, and a large number of English-speaking 
Americans (who are still going in in large numbers) with a splendid 
lot of Germans and Scandinavians. The English language is the 
language of the country, and is spoken everywhere. 

3a. Are the Indians troublesome? 

ANSWER. No; qmte the reverse. They remain peaceably on 
their reservations and entertain no unkind feelings towards the white 
settlers. Law and order are maintained throughout the country by 
the Northwest Mounted Police, a semi-military force, the existence of 
which makes life and property as safe in the new Western settlement* 
as in the large cities of the East. 

4. Is it well to carry a revolver? 

ANSWER. It is against the law to do so without a special lincese, 
and it is most unusual and altogether unnecessary to do so under 
ordinary circumstances. 

5. Will I have to change my citizenship if I go to Canada? 
ANSWER. A foreigner may enter land for a free homestead, but he 

must become naturalized before he can obtain a patent for it. Mean- 
while he can hold possession of the land, live upon it and exercise 
every right of ownership. If not already a British subject he must 
reside three years in the country to become natiiralized. To become 
a British subject a settler of foreign birth should make application to 
anyone authorized to administer oaths in a Canadian Court, who will 
instruct him as to the details of completing his natiiralization. 
C. How about American money? 

ANSWER. You can take it with you, and have it changed when you 
arrive in Canada, or you can get same changed before you start. 
American money, however, is taken almost everywhere in Western 
Canada at its face value. 

DOMINION LAND OFFICES. 

(See boundaries of land districts on map.) 

Alameda District — R. C. Kisbey, agent, Alameda. 
Brandon District — L. J. Qement, agent, Brandon. 
Battleford District— L. P. O. Noel, agent, Battleford. 
Calgary District — J. R. Sutherland, agent, Calgary. 
Dauphin District — F. K. Herchmer, agent. Dauphin. 
Edmonton District — A. G. Harrison, agent, Edmonton. 



12 



WESTERN CANADA 



Lethbridfc District — J. W. Martin, agent, Lethbridge. 
Minnedosa District — John Flesher, agent, Minnedosa. 
Prince Albert District — J. W. Hannon, agent, Prince Albert. 
Red Deer District — W. H. Cottingham, agent. Red Deer. 
Regina District — D. S. McCannel, agent, Regina. 
Swift Current District — Business transacted at Regina. 
Wetaskiwin District — Business transacted at Edmonton. 
Winnipeg District — E. F. Stephenson, agent; J. W. E. Darby, 
assistant agent; A. F. Crowe, assistant Crown timber agent, Winnipeg. 
Yorkton District — John McTaggart, agent, Yorkton. 




Harvesting. 



SETTLERS' EFFECTS. 

1. Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of the settlers ' 
tariff, may be made up of the following described property for the 
benefit of actual settlers, viz. : Live Stock, any number up to but not 
exceeding ten (10) head, aU told, viz.; Cattle, calves, sheep, hogs, 
mules or horses; Household goods and personal property (second- 
hand) ; Wagons or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand) ; 
Farm Machinery. Implements and tools (all second-hand) ; Soft- 
wood Lumber (Pine, Hemlock, or Spruce — only) and Shingles, whick 
must not exceed 2,000 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof; or in lieu 
of, not in addition to, ^e lumber and shingles, a Portable House may 
be shipped; Seed, grain, small quantity of trees or shrubbery; small 
lot lire poultry or pet animals; and sufficient feed for the live stock 



13 



WESTERN CANADA 



while on the journey. Settlers* Effects rates, however, will not apply 
on shipments of second-hand Wagons, Biiggies, Farm Machinery, 
Implements or Tools, unless accompanied by Household Goods. 

Should tne allotted nimiber of live stock be exceeded, the addi- 
tional animals will be charged for at proportionate rates over and 
above the carload rate for the Settlers' Effects, but the total charge 
for any one such car will not exceed the regtilar rate for a straight 
carload of Live Stock 

3. Passes. — One man will 'be passed free in charge of live stock 
when forming part of carloads, to feed, water and care for them in 
transit. Ageiits will use the usual form of Live Stock Contract. 

4. Less than carloads will be understood to mean only Household 
Goods (second-hand). Wagons or other vehicles for personal use 
(second hand, and (second-hand) Farm Machinery, Implements and 
Tools. Less than carload lots must be plainly addressed. Minimimi 
charge on any shipment will be 100 lbs. at regular first-class rate. 

5. Merchandise, such as groceries, provisions, hardware, etc., also 
implen.ents, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be regarded as 
Settlers* Effects, and, if shipped, will be charged the regtdar classified 
tariff rates. Agents, both at loading and delivering stations, there- 
fore, give attention to the prevention of the loading of contraband 
articles, and see that the actual weights are way-billed when carloads 
exceed 24,000 lbs. 

6. Top Loads. — Agents do not permit, under any circumstances, 
any article to be loaded on the top of box or stock cars; such manner 
of loading is dangerous and is absolutely forbidden. 

7. Settlers* Effects, to be entitled to the carload rates, cannot be 
stopped at any point short of destination for the purpose of unloading 
part. The entire carload must go through to the station to which 
originally consigned. 

8. The carload rates on Settlers* Effects apply on any shipment 
occupying a car weighing 24,000 lbs. or less. If the carload weight 
over 24,000 lbs. the additional weight will be charged for. 

9. Minim tmi charge on any shipment will be 100 lbs. at regular 
first-class rate. 

10. Settlers' Effects ex-connecting lines are charged full rates 
from "Soo" Line Railway junction points. 



4 



J\ E S T E R N CANADA 



THE FOLLOWING IS A PLAH OF A TOWNSHIP. 



N 

STX KTIES SQUARE 













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8 



Each square contains 640 acres; each qiiarter-section contains 160 
acres. 

A section contains 640 acres and forms one mile square. 

Government Lands open for homestead (that is for free settle- 
ment)— Section N OS. 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14. 16, 18, 20, 22, 24. 28, 30, 32 
34, 36. 

Railway Lands for sale (Subsidies for Construction). — ScctioM 
Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, IS, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25. 27, 31, 33, 35. 

School Sections. — Section Nos. 1 1 and 29 are reserved by Govern- 
ntcnt for school purposes. 

Hudson Bay Company's Land for sale. — Sections Nos. 8 and 26, 

Any even-numbered section of Dominion land in Manitoba or the 
Northwest Territories, excepting 8 and 26. which has not been home- 
steaded, reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or for other 
purposes, may be homesteaded upon by any person who is the sole 
head of a family, or any male over eighteen years of age, to the 
extent of one quarter-section of 160 acres, more or less. 



ENTRY. 

Entry must be made in person at the'local land'office for the dis- 
trict m which the land to be taken is situate. A fee of $ 10 is chai ged 
or an ordinary homestead entry 



15 



WESTERN C A N A^Ta 



HOMESTEAD DUTIES, 

Under the present law homestead duties must be performed in one 
of the following ways, namely: 

( 1 ) B y at least six months' residence upon and cultivation of the 
land in each year during the term of three years. 

(2) If the father (or the mother, if the father is deceased) of any 
person who is eligible to make a homestead entry resides upon a farm 
m the vicinity of the land entered for by such person as a homestead, 
the requirements of the law as to residence prior to obtaining patent 
may be satisfied by such person residing with the father or mother. 

(3) If the settler has his permanent residence upon farming land 
owned by him in the vicinity of his homestead, the requirements of 
the law as to residence may be satisfied by residence upon the said 
land. 

APPLICATION FOR PATENT 

should be made at the end of the three years, before the Local Agent, 
'Sub-Agent or the Homestead Inspector. Before making application 
^for patent the settler is expected to give six months' notice in writing 
to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands at Ottawa, of his intention 
"to do so. 



Indian Head, she 



WESTERN CANADA 



INFORMATION. 

Newly arrived immig:rants will receive at the Immigration office m 
Winnipeg, or at the Dominion lands office in Manitoba, or the North- 
west Territories, information as to the lands that are open for entry, 
and from the officers in charge, free of expense, advice and assistance 
in securing lands to suit them; and full information respecting the 
land, timber, coal and mineral laws, as well as respecting Dominion 
lands in the railway belt in British Columbia, may be obtained upon 
application to the Secretary of the Department of the Interior, 
Ottawa; the Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, Manitoba, or 
to any of the Dominion lands agents in Manitoba. Saskatchewan or 
Alberta. 

N. B. — In addition to free grant lands, to which the regulations 
above-stated refer, thousands of acres of most desirable lands are 
available for lease or purchase from railroad and other corporations 
and private firms in Western Canada 

CUSTOMS— FREE ENTRIES. 

The following is an extract from the customs tariff of Canada, 
specifying the articles that can be so entered : 




g 11 elevatort 



17 



WESTERN CANADA 



Settlers' Effects, viz.: — Wearing apparel, hoiisehold fumittire 
books, implements and tools of trade, occupation, or employment; 
guis, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters 
live stock, bicycles, carts and other vehicles, and agricultural imple- 
ments in use by the settler for at least six months before his remora 
to Canada; not to include machinery or articles imported for use in 
any manufacturing establishment or for sale; also books, pictures, 
family plate or furniture, personal effects, and heirlooms left by 
bequest; provided, that any dutiable articles entered as settlers' 
effects may not be so entered unless brought with the settler on his 
first arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without 
payment of duty until after twelve months' actual use in Canada; 
provided also, that under regulations made by the Comptroller of 
Customs, live stock, when imported into Manitoba, Saskatchewan or 
Alberta by an intending settler, shall be free until otherwise ordered 
by the Governor in Council. 

Settlers arriving from the United States are allowed to enter duty 
free stock in the following proportions: One animal of neat stock 
or horses for each ten acres of land purchased or otherwise secured 
under homestead entry, up to 160 acres, and one sheep for each acre 
so secured. Customs duties paid on animals brought in excess of this 
proportion will be refunded for the number applicable to an addi- 
tional holding of 160 acres, when taken up. 

The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be supplied 
him by the customs officer on application) giving description, value, 
etc., of the goods and articles he wishes to be allowed to bring in free 
of duty. He will also be required to take the following oath: 

I, do hereby solemnly make oath 

and say, that all the goods and articles hereinbefore mentioned are, 
to the best of my knowledge and belief, entitled to free entry as 
settlers' effects, under the tariff of duties of customs now in force, 
and all of them have been owned and in actual use by myself for at 
least six months before removal to Canada; and that none of the 
goods or articles shown in entry have been imported as merchandise 
or for any use in a manufacturing establishment, or for sale and that 
I intend becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of 
Canada. 

*^)Wom before me at day of 190 

The following oath shall be made by intending settlers when im- 
porting live stock into Manitoba or the Northwest Territories free of 
duty: 

I, do solemnly swear that I am 

now moving into Manitoba (or the Northwest Territories) with the 
intention of becoming a settler therein, and that the live stock enxun- 
erated and described in the entry hereunto attached is intended for 
my own use on the farm which I am about to occupy (or cultivate) 
and not for sale or speculative ptirposes, nor for the use of any other 
person or persons whonasoercr. 



IS 



WESTERN C A N A D 



QUARANTINE OF SETTLERS' CATTLE 

Settlers' cattle, when accompanied by certificates of health, are 
admitted without detention; when not so accompanied, they must be 
inspected. Inspectors may subject any cattle showing symptoms of 
tuberculosis to the tuberculin test before allowing them to enter. 
Any cattle found tuberculous to be returned to the United States or 
killed without indemnity. Sheep, for breeding and feeding purposes, 
may be admitted by a certificate to inspection at port of entry, and 
must be accompanied by a certificate, signed by a Government in- 
spector, that sheep scab has not existed in the district in which they 
have been fed for six months preceding the date of importation. If 
disease is discovered to exist in them, they may be returned or 
slaughtered. Swine may be admitted, when forming part of settlers' 
effects, but only after a quarantine of 30 days at the border, and when 
accompanied by a certificate that swine plague or hog cholera has not 
existed in the district whence they came for six months preceding the 
date of shipment; when not accompanied by such certificate they 
will be subject to slaughter without compensation. 

' STOP-OVER PRIVILEGES. 

Intending setllers are given the privilege of stopping over a 
stations where they wish to inspect land. Application should be 
made to the conductor before reaching station where stop-over is 
required. 

FUEL FOR SETTLERS. 

Any homesteader having no timber on his homestead may. on 
application to the Local Agent of Dominion Lands, get a permit to 
cut what he requires for biulding material, fencing and fuel for use on 
his homestead. 

INFORMATION AND ADVICE. 

Can be Freely Obtained from the following. 

W. W. CORY, Deputy Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada. 
W. D. SCOTT, Superintendent of Immigration, Ottawa, Canada. 
J. OBED SMITH, Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, Man. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

W. T. R. Preston, 11 and 12 Charing Cross, London, England. 

A. F. Jury, Old Castle Bldg., Preeson's Row, Liverpool, England. 

John Webster, 14 Westmorland Street, Dublin, Ireland. 

J. Bruce Walker, 52 St. Enoch Square, Glasgow, Scotland. 

H. M. Murray, Western Mail Building, Cardiff, Wales. 

Edward O'Kelly, 13 Queens' Square, Belfast, Ireland. 

G. H. Mitchell, Newton Chambers, 43 Cannon Street, Birmingham 



WESTERN CANADA 



UNITED STATES AGENTS. 

M. V. McInnes, No. 6 and 7 Avenue Theatre Block, Detroit, Mich. 
James Grieve, Spokane, Washington. 

J. S. Crawford. 125 W. Ninth Street, Kansas City. Missouri. 
E. T. Holmes, 315 Jackson Street, St. Paul, Minnesota. 
T. O. CuRRiE, Room 12b, Callahan Building. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
C. J. Broughton, R. 412 Merchants' Loan and Trust Building! 
Chicago, Illinois. 

W. V. Bennett, 801 New York Life Building. Omaha. Nebraska. 

W. H, Rogers, Traction-Terminal, Indianapolis. Indiana. 

C. Pilling, Clifford Block, Grand Forks. North Dakota. 

H. M. Williams, 413 Gardner Building, Toledo, Ohio. 

C. O. SwANSON, Scandinavian Immigration Agent, 315 Jackson 

Street, St. Paul, Minnesota. 
C. A. Laurier, Marquette, Michigan. 
J. M. MacLachlan, Box 116, Watertown, South Dakota. 
Benj. Davies, Dunn Block, Room 6, Central Avenue, Great Falls 

Montana. 

J. C. Duncan, 313 House Building, Cor. Smithfield and Water 

Streets, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 
Thos. Duncan, 30 Syracuse Savings Bank Building, Svracuse New 

York. 

Thos. Hetherington, 114 Dudley Street, Roxbury, Massachus«et.«. 
MANITOBA 

is already well settled, but homesteads can still be secured in this 
highly favored province. The natural resoiu-cej of the country are 
as great as those of any other part of the North American Continent. 
The soil is a rich black loam of great strength and depth, that of the 
Red River Valley being particularly well adapted for the growth of 
wheat. The province is well supplied by nature with wood, hay 
and water. Railways, schools, churches, and thriving towns are now 
scattered all over the country. The population is made up of Cana- 
dians, Americans and people from every state in Europe, so that the 
intending settler, no matter what his nationality, can settle among 
his own countrymen. 



THE NEW PROVINCES. 

The two new provincts of Alberta and Saskatchewan contain 
between them the largest unbroken tract of wheat-growing land to 
be found on the American continent. A large area of desirable 
free grant land is to be had along the extensions of the Canadian 
Northern Railway, and also along the projected lines of the Grand 
Trtmk Pacific and Canadian Pacific from Saskatoon west threuch 
to Edmonton and Wetaskiwin. 



29 



WESTERN CANADA 



ALBERTA 

is situated immediately east of the Rocky Mountains and north of 
the State of Montana, covering an area of about 253 ,000 square mDes. 
Itiscliaracterizedbya mild climate in wintet and cool breezes in s\mi- 
mer. Its location gives it the benefit in winter of the Chinook winds, 
which follow a northeasterly direction from the current in the southern 
Pacific Ocean, whence they receive their warmth. The snow in win- 
ter rarely Has longer than four or five days at a time when it is melted 
by this wind, thus making the winters mild and filling the creeks and 
ponds with water for the stock on the ranches. In the simimer these 
creeks are constantly supplied with water from the melting snow in 
ine mountains, so that during the simimer and winter there is always 
to be found an abundance of water for grazing and all other purposes 




A Western Canada Home. 



The wild grasses are most nutritious, as has been demonstrated by 
the thousands of cattle sold from the different ranches, all in first- 
class condition for the market, anditis a fact that, even in the spring 
cattle, which have not received any feed except what they got by 
grazing, are brought in from the ranches as fat as stall-fed cattle in 
the Eastern Provinces. 

The surplus cattle raised in the Edmonton District are shipped to 
British Columbia. 

The grain raised in the Edmonton District docs but little more, at 
present, than supply local requirements. There is, howerer, a sur- 



21 



WESTERN CANADA 



plus of oats, which finds a market in British Coliuabia. The ere«ttOH 
of extensive oatmeal mills at Edmonton has also created an excelltnt 
home market. Fall or winter wheat is being successfully introduced 
in Alberta and its widespread use is looked for in the near future. 

The cool temperature in summer, with the grasses and pure cool 
mountain streams mentioned, make Alberta one of the best countries 
to be found for cheese and butter-making, and it is rapidly becoming 
as noted for such industries as for its ranches. 

^jThis Province is served by the Canadian Pacific Railway muia 
lir.e, by branches from Calgary to Edmonton and to Macleod. and by 
the Crow's Nest Pass Railway from near Medicine Hat, which runs 
through the great mining districts of Southern British Columbia. 

The Caniidian North ero is now built through to Edmonton and 
tb-^ survey of the Grand Trunlt Pacific it completed. 

SASKATCHEWAN. 

jThe valley of the Saskatchewan, which extends from the Rocky 
Mountains to Manitoba, contains some of the most fertile soil in the 
world. The newly formed Province of Saskatchewan embraces a 
large portion of this great valley and extends south to the Interna- 
tional boundary. The total area of the Province is about 251,000 
square miles. Regina, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, is the capital and principal centre, and throughout the 
district are many thriving settlements, in which are located a large 
Qumber of prosperous settlers. Among them is the Prince Albert 
district, near the forks of the north and south branches of the Sas- 
katchewan river, and the Saskatoon district on the South Saskat- 
^ewan« 

Writing to Friends. — A settler who ftas relations or friend? in other 
countries will be benefiting himself as well as the country at large by 
informing them how he himself has prospered, and pointing out the 
chances for them of making independent and comfortable homes in 
the great Canadian West. The postage rate on letters is 2 cents to 
all parts of Canada, the United States and the British Empire, and 
5 cents to other countries. Settlers have no postage to pay when 
writing for advice to the Central Experimental Farm or Govern- 
roemt Dr^^nments at Ottawa. 

POST-OFFICE ADDRESS 

Before leaving hia homestead the settler should leave a post-office 
address a- which ue can obtain his letters while away. i>e may not 
intend to be off long, but circumstances may occur that will take him 
further and keep him longer away than he intended. If he is not 
careful he may overstay the time allowed.and find on his return that 
his homestead entry has been cancelled and taken up by some one 
vise. Better b# sur Ihxn sorry and take nc chancM of land notices 



22 



WESTERN CANADA 



or ether letters being held at his proper post-office awaitinf his 
return. 

If anything goes wrong as to time and absence, he may lose his land 
and at any rate is pretty sure to be compelled to make a fresh entry 

CHAIfGING THE HOMESTEAD. 

Should a settler find that he has accidently settled upon a quarter 
section of land which will not repay the labour expended on it, he 
may apply to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Ottawa, stating 
fully the case, and asking for permission to change his entry. If the 
Commissioner is satisfied that the settler is'entitled to a change, he 
will grant it on payment of a fresh fee. 

MORE QUESTIONS. 

1. Where is information to be had about British Columbia? 
ANSWER. Apply to the Superintendent of Immigration, Ottawa, 

Ontario, and to the Secretary. Provincial Bureau of Information, 
Victoria, B.C. 

2. Can a man who has used his homestead right in the United 
States take a homestead in Canada? 

ANSWER. Yes. 

3. Ir a British subject has taken out "citizen papen" in the United 
States how does he stand in Canada? 

ANSWER. He must be "repatriated." i.e., take out a certificate ot 
naturalization when be gets his final papers on his homestead. 

4. Does a U. S. pensioner forfeit his pension by moving into 
Canada? 

ANSWER. No; many such are permanent residents of Canada and 
receive their pensions regularly. 

5. Is the Peace Riyer country open to settlement? 

ANSWER. No; the townships there have not yet been subdivided 
and thrown open for homesteading. 

6. Can I get a map or Ust of aU the lands now racani and open to 
entry as homestet^ds? 

ANSWER. No; it has been found impracticable to keep a publica- 
tion of that kind up to date owing to the frequent changes. An in- 
tending settler should decide in a general way where he will go, and 
then on reaching Western Canada he should enquire of the Govern- 
ment officials what lands are vacant in that particular locality, 
finally narrowing down the enquiry to a township or two, diagrams 
of which, with the vacant lands marked, will be supplied, free of 
charge, on application to the local agent of Dominion Lands. ' 

It is well for settlers going in via Winnipeg to stop off there and 
call at the office of the Commissioner of Immigration for advice. Up- 
to-date information as to vacant homesteads, employment, etc.. is 
always to be had at that office. 



23 




SOME WESTERN CANADIAN HOMES 




AND HOV 

And All About It. 




f rospecTivE SBltler. 

lasutd under aiitKontcj of 

MoN .Frank Oliver. 

ANINISTER OF THE INTERIOR 
\ OTTAWA, CANADA.